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Albumin: protein that is soluble in water and coagulated by heat. An example is serum albumin, which is found in blood plasma and is important for the maintenance of plasma volume.

Albuminuria: the presence of serum albumin, serum globulin or other serum proteins in the urine.

Anion: an ion of negative charge; such as chloride ion Cl-

Bactericidal: being capable of killing bacteria

Bacteriostatic: capable of inhibiting or retarding the growth and multiplication of bacteria

Bloodstream: the blood flowing through the circulatory system of an animal, carrying substances from one tissue to another

Cation: an ion of positive charge; such as sodium ion Na+

Connective tissue: the tissue that supports, binds, or separates more specialized tissues or organs.

Endocrine gland: gland that manufactures one or more hormones and secretes them directly to the bloodstream

Endocrine system: the body system that consists of the endocrine glands that release their secretions (hormones) into the bloodstream to reach and act on target cells of specific organs.

Glycolysis: the conversion of glucose, by a series of enzyme-catalysed reactions, to lactic acid.

Hazard: a general term for anything that possess a level of threat to life, health or environment

Hyponatraemia: the presence in the blood of an abnormally low concentration of sodium.

Hypothalamus: the region of the forebrain in the floor of the third ventricle. It contains several important centres controlling body temperature, thirst, hunger, water balance and sexual function.

Lactic acid: a compound that forms in the cells as the end-product of glucose metabolism in the absence of oxygen.

Metabolic process: the sum of all biochemical changes that enable live organisms to continue growth and functioning.

Metmyoglobin: Oxidation of ferrous ions in myoglobin readily produces metmyoglobin.

Myoglobin: an iron-containing protein found in muscle cells. It contains a haem group, which binds reversibly with oxygen, and so acts as an oxygen reservoir within the muscle fibres.

Myosin: the most abundant protein in muscle fibrils, having the important properties of elasticity and contractility.

Organoleptic: refers to any sensory properties of the product, involving taste, colour, odour and feel.

Osmolality: the concentration in fluids (e.g. plasma, urine) measured in terms of moles of dissolved substances per unit mass of water.

Osmosis: the passage of solvent from a less concentrated to a more concentrated solution through a semipermeable membrane. This tends to equalize the concentration of the two solutions.

Patties: mince meat, usually disc-shaped and flattened.

pH: a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution, and therefore of its acidity or alkalinity. A pH of 7 indicates neutrality, a pH below 7 indicates acidity, and a pH in excess of 7 indicates alkalinity.

Phosphates: are salts of phosphoric acid

Plasma: the straw-coloured fluid in which the blood cells are suspended. It consists of a solution of various inorganic salts of sodium, potassium, calcium, etc, with a high concentration of protein (approximately 70g/l) and a variety of trace substances.

Salt: a dietary mineral comprised of sodium and chloride (NaCl)