1.Potassium chloride: when substituting NaCl with KCl the hazards associated with consuming Na+ in human health are reduced but the effects caused by Cl- in meat are kept. However, KCl can produce a bitter taste.

2.Lactate has a bacteriostatic effect, extending the overall shelf-life of the product, but, when introduced as sodium lactate, it will increase the amount of sodium in the final product.

3.Sodium nitrate/nitrite produces a stable red curing colour; it has an antioxidant effect and acts as a preservative against some bacteria. However it has caused concerns in the media about cancer when it forms N-nitrosamines.

4.Carrageenan can bind water and improve the binding process by gel formation. It can, however, be quite expensive